Define intimidating witness

A victim's vulnerability may change during the course of an investigation due to health, intimidation or other reasons.

Vulnerable or intimidated witnesses can be assisted by 'Special Measures' to help them to give their evidence in the best way possible.

(A) read as follows: “in the case of murder (as defined in section 1111), the death penalty or imprisonment for life, and in the case of any other killing, the punishment provided in section 1112;”.

110–177, § 205(1)(B), substituted “30 years” for “20 years” in concluding provisions.

prevent the communication by any person to a law enforcement officer or judge of the United States of information relating to the commission or possible commission of a Federal offense or a violation of conditions of probation, parole, or release pending judicial proceedings; hinder, delay, or prevent the communication to a law enforcement officer or judge of the United States of information relating to the commission or possible commission of a Federal offense or a violation of conditions of probation, supervised release, parole, or release pending judicial proceedings; hinder, delay, or prevent the communication to a law enforcement officer or judge of the United States of information relating to the commission or possible commission of a Federal offense or a violation of conditions of probation [1] supervised release,,[1] parole, or release pending judicial proceedings; alters, destroys, mutilates, or conceals a record, document, or other object, or attempts to do so, with the intent to impair the object’s integrity or availability for use in an official proceeding; or In a prosecution for an offense under this section, it is an affirmative defense, as to which the defendant has the burden of proof by a preponderance of the evidence, that the conduct consisted solely of lawful conduct and that the defendant’s sole intention was to encourage, induce, or cause the other person to testify truthfully.

that the official proceeding before a judge, court, magistrate judge, grand jury, or government agency is before a judge or court of the United States, a United States magistrate judge, a bankruptcy judge, a Federal grand jury, or a Federal Government agency; or that the judge is a judge of the United States or that the law enforcement officer is an officer or employee of the Federal Government or a person authorized to act for or on behalf of the Federal Government or serving the Federal Government as an adviser or consultant.

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The role of an intermediary is to facilitate communications without changing the substance of the evidence.

Intermediaries can work with victims and witnesses from the time they give their initial statement to the police through to giving their evidence in court.

They will assess the individual needs and abilities of the victim or witness and advise the criminal justice agencies on how to question them to get their best evidence.

In the magistrates' court, the maximum penalty is six months' imprisonment and/or a fine to the statutory maximum.

In the Crown Court, the maximum penalty is five years' imprisonment and/or a fine.

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